Bioenenergetics and Growth

Table of Contents

Foreword

Chapter 1. Introduction: Factors in the Efficiency Complex
1.1 - Efficiency and profit, immediate and long range
1.2 - Growth, form, and function
1.3 - Organizational energy or the energy expended for the “work” of growth and morphogenesis
1.4 - Basal metabolism, maintenance cost, and efficiency
1.5 - Nutritional categories
1.6 - Organismic and atomistic viewpoints
1.7 - Appendix

Chapter 2. Energetics, Energy Units, and Dietary-Energy Categories
2.1 - Energetics
2.2 - Energy units and energetic equivalents
2.3 - Feed and nutrient energy categories
2.4 - Summary and appendix

Chapter 3. Energetic Efficiencies of Growth and Work Processes
3.1 - Energetic efficiency of muscular work and the maintenance complication
3.2 - Energetic efficiency of growth and the maintenance complication
3.3 - Energetic efficiency of milk and egg production
3.4 - Relation between the net energy category of feed and the efficiency of productive processes
3.5 - Summary

Chapter 4. Specific Dynamic Action and Efficiency of Productive Processes
4.1 - Specific dynamic action, basal metabolism, and endogenous nitrogen excretion
4.2 - Plane of nutrition and SDA
4.3 - Nutrient unbalance and SDA
4.4 - Agricultural implications
4.5 - Summary

Chapter 5. Plane of Nutrition, the Principle of Diminishing Increments, and Efficiency
5.1 - The principle of diminishing increments
5.2 - The principle of diminishing increments and the net energy values of cattle and rabbit feeds
5.3 - The principle of diminishing increments and food consumption during growth
5.4 - The principle of diminishing increments and milk production
5.5 - The principle of diminishing increments and egg production efficiency
5.6 - The principle of diminishing increments and muscular-work efficiency

Chapter 6. Metabolic Catalysts in the Efficiency Complex: Enzymes, Minerals and Vitamins in Biologic Oxidations
6.1 - Introduction
6.2 - Aerobic and anaerobic oxidations with special reference to intense muscular work
6.3 - Oxidation-reduction potentials and biologic oxidation
6.4 - Interrelations between minerals, vitamins, enzymes, and hormones in biologic oxidations: an illustration of unity in diversity
6.5 - Note on biologic synthesis with special reference to CO2 assimilation in hetertrophs
6.6 - Summary and appendix
I. B vitamins or bios
II. Ascorbic acid
III. Fat-soluble vitamins
IV. Mineral groups in oxidoreductions
V. General definitions

Chapter 7. Metabolic Catalysts in the Efficiency Complex: Hormones
7.1 - Orientation
7.2 - Hormones in reproduction and lactation
7.3 - Energy-metabolism hormones, thyroid and adrenal-medulla
7.4 - Adrenal cortex
7.5 - Calcium-phosphorus-metabolism hormones, the parathyroids
7.6 - Carbohydrate-fat metabolism hormones
7.7 - Anterior-pituitary and growth hormones
7.8 - Notes on miscellaneous hormones
7.9 - Summary

Chapter 8. Metabolic Catalysts in the Efficiency Complex: Seasonal Rhythms
8.1 - Introduction
8.2 - Historic notes
8.3 - Mechanism of seasonal sex periodicity
8.4 - Seasonal food supply rhythms in relation to seasonal sex activity
8.5 - Seasonal periodicity in relation to efficiency with special reference to egg and milk production
8.6 - Seasonal growth and metabolic rhythms
8.7 - Summary

Chapter 9. Metabolic Catalysts in the Efficiency Complex: Diurnal Rhythms
9.1 - Introduction
9.2 - The literature
9.3 - Diurnal metabolic rhythm in the rat, its control and effect on the apparent SDA
9.4 - Summary

Chapter 10. Homeostasis and Organismic Theory
10.1 - Introduction
10.2 - Body-weight regulation
10.3 - Body-water regulation
10.4 - Carbohydrate-level regulation
10.5 - Calcium-level regulation
10.6 - Fat-level regulation
10.7 - Oxygen and acid level regulation
10.8 - Neuro-endocrine homeostasis
10.9 - Social homeostasis
10.10 - Notes on organismic or field theory and on research methods
10.11 - Summary

Chapter 11. Homeothermy, Temperature in Life Processes, and Productive Efficiency
11.1 - Introduction
11.2 - Relative productivities and efficiencies of homeotherms and poikilotherms
11.3 - Temperature coefficients and the van’t Hoff-Arrhenius equation in life processes
11.4 - Age changes in homeothermy
11.5 - Homeothermic mechanisms
11.6 - Applications
11.7 - Summary

Chapter 12. Methods in Animal Calorimetry
12.1 - Principles
12.2 - Methods of indirect calorimetry
12.3 - Food calorimetry
12.4 - Historic comments
12.5 - Summary and general comments

Chapter 13. Basal Energy and Protein Metabolism in Relation to Body Weight in Mature Animals of Different Species
13.1 - Definitions
13.2 - Basal metabolism and the “surface law”
13.3 - Metabolically-effective body size vs. surface area
13.4 - Properties of equations relating surface area or metabolism to body size
13.5 - Relation of basal energy metabolism to body weight in mature animals of different species
13.6 - Relation of endogenous nitrogen, creatinine, and neutral sulfur excretion to body weight in mature animals of different species
13.7 - Summary
13.8 - Appendix

Chapter 14. Metabolism and Pulmonary Ventilation in Relation to Body Weight During Growth
14.1 - Definitions
14.2 - Metabolism in relation to body weight in the white rat, with notes on cerebral metabolism
14.3 - Resting metabolism and pulmonary ventilation in dairy cattle
14.4 - Resting metabolism in goats
14.5 - Resting metabolism and pulmonary ventilation in horses
14.6 - Metabolism in man
14.7 - Prenatal heat production in relation to birth weight
14.8 - Estimating the heat increment of gestation and total prenatal heat production
14.9 - Endogenous nitrogen excretion during growth
14.10 - Metabolism per unit weight as a function of weight and of age during rapid growth
14.11 - Summary and conclusions

Chapter 15. Maintenance Needs in Relation to Basal Metabolism, Body Size, and Productive Efficiency

Chapter 16. Time relations of Growth and Individuals and Populations
16.1 - Introduction and definitions
16.2 - The shape of the age curve of growth of individuals and populations
16.3 - Definitions and quantitative respresentations of growth rates
16.4 - The principle of mass action and the self-accelerating phase of growth
16.5 - Extension of the principle of mass action to the self-inhibiting phase of growth
16.6 - Genetic growth constants
16.7 - Note on the relation between average and individual growth curves
16.8 - Growth of the human population in the United States
16.9 - Comparison of our growth equations with some others
16.10 - Summary
16.11 - Appendix

Chapter 17. Linear Growth, Form, and Function
17.1 - Introduction and definitions
17.2 - Notes on dimensional analysis
17.3 - Equations relating part to whole
17.4 - Relation between organ weight and total body weight
17.5 - Linear growth and form
17.6 - Estimating weight of cattle from chest girth
17.7 - Estimating nutritive condition of cattle from height at withers
17.8 - Note on the relation of weight to height in humans
17.9 - Estimating the amount of wool or feathers from body weight
17.10 - Summary
17.11 - Appendix

Chapter 18. Aging in Relation to Growth and Efficiency with Special Reference to Milk and Egg Production
18.1 - Physicochemical theory of aging
18.2 - Control of aging
18.3 - Criteria of aging and the prime of life
18.4 - Quantitative analysis of aging data
18.5 - Summary and appendix

Chapter 19. Time relations of Growth and Individuals and Populations
19.1 - Physical versus physiological clocks
19.2 - Post-pubertal equivalence in weight growth
19.3 - Age equivalence based on the proportionality between two biologically equivalent points
19.4 - Pre-pubertal equivalence in weight growth
19.5 - Senescence equivalence
19.6 - Summary

Chapter 20. Nutritional Aspects in the Efficiency Complex
20.1 - Introduction: Species and individual differences in dependence on food for vitamins and animo acids
20.2 - “Nutritional wisdom”
20.3 - The ad libitum and paired-feeding methods for the nutritional evaluation of foods
20.4 - Balance between nutrients
20.5 - General vitamin relations in nutrition
20.6 - Vitamins in relation to the neuro-endocrine and neuro-muscular systems
20.7 - Amino acid relations in nutrition
20.8 - Notes on mineral relations in nutrition
20.9 - Note on energy relations in nutrition
20.10 - Summary and appendix

Chapter 21. Milk: Nutritional, Social, and Physiological Aspects
21.1 - Introduction
21.2 - Nutritional importance of milk
21.3 - Composition of milk
21.4 - Physico-chemical aspects of lactation
21.5 - The heat increment of lactation during feeding and fasting
21.6 - Energetic efficiency of milk production
21.7 - Summary
21.8 - Appendix

Chapter 22. The Monetary Economy of Milk Production
22.1 - “Dairy merit”: quantitative definition
22.2 - Lactationally effective body size: quantitative definition
22.3 - Evaluation of dairy merit
22.4 - The influence of dairy merit on profit in animals of equal body weight
22.5 - The influence of body weight on profit in animals of equal dairy merit
22.6 - The influence of plane of nutrition on profit
22.7 - Summary

Chapter 23. Egg Production: Nutritional and Energetic Efficiency Aspects
23.1 - Similarities and differences between egg and milk
23.2 - Energetic efficiency of egg production
23.3 - Influence of live weight on gross efficiency of egg production
23.4 - Influence of production level on gross efficiency of egg production
23.5 - Feeding standard for poultry
23.6 - Interrelation between profit, gross efficiency of egg production, body size, and egg size
23.7 - Summary
23.8 - Appendix

Chapter 24. Energetic Efficiency of Muscular Work and Indices of Work-Reserve Capacity
24.1 - Introduction
24.2 - Work performance and its energetic efficiency
24.3 - Relative metabolism in steady, maximum, and brief peak effort
24.4 - Mechanisms limiting work capacity
24.5 - Measuring work capacity
24.6 - Relative economy of horse and tractor
24.7 - Summary
24.8 - Appendix

Chapter 25. Summary and Integrating Discussion
25.1 - Summary
25.2 - Integrating discussion
25.3 - Summary of summary

Conversion Factors

Author’s Index

Subject Index